Sonus complete

Zhang et al. (2016) have reported that oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation treatment enhances the expression level of TRPV2 in cortical astrocytes and blocking the TRPV2 promotes proliferation and increases nerve growth factor secretion via MAPK/JNK signaling pathway in the astrocytes. In addition, Benfenati et al. (2011) reported that an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and TRPV4 complex is essential for cell-volume control in astrocytes. Moreover, activation of TRPV4 in astrocytes contributes to amplify flow/pressure-evoked parenchymal arteriole vasoconstriction (Dunn et al., 2013), regulates neuronal excitability via release of gliotransmitters (Shibasaki et al., 2014), and modulates volume regulation, swelling, and AQP4 gene expression (Jo et al., 2015). Microglia also express several isoforms of TRPV channels, especially TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4. Activation of TRPV1 triggered Ca2+ signaling-dependent cell death in microglia (Kim et al., 2006).